Identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.13003/20070
Immune and Oxidative Stress Response of the Fish Xyrichthys novacula Infected with the Trematode Ectoparasite Scaphanocephalus sp. in the Balearic Islands
StatisticsItem usage statistics
MetadataShow Dublin Core item record
Document typeresearch article
CitationCohen-Sánchez A, Sánchez-Mairata AG, Valencia JM, Box A, Pinya S, Tejada S, et al. Immune and Oxidative Stress Response of the Fish Xyrichthys novacula Infected with the Trematode Ectoparasite Scaphanocephalus sp. in the Balearic Islands. Fishes. 2023 Dec 6;8(12):600.
Global change produces substantial modification to the distribution and rhythm of infection of diseases in fish, favouring the introduction of new pathogens. Recently, the presence of black spot disease, associated with a digenean fluke of the genus Scaphanocephalus, has been observed in specimens of Xyrichthys novacula on the island of Ibiza (Balearic Islands). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and immune response in both the skin mucus and spleen of X. novacula depending on the degree of infection by Scaphanocephalus sp. The specimens were captured in a control area, without the presence of the parasite, and in an affected area, classifying the fish as low infection (1-15 spots) and high infection (>15 spots). As the degree of infection increased, a decrease in the body condition index was observed. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the mucus-catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase-increased progressively with the degree of infection. This activation of antioxidant defences was not enough to prevent an increase in malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of oxidative damage, in the group with the highest infection. Similarly, an increase in immunological parameters-lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase, myeloperoxidase and immunoglobulins-was observed in mucus as infection increased. Regarding the spleen, only an increase in lysozyme activity and alkaline phosphatase in fish with a greater severity of infection was observed. In conclusion, as the severity of Scaphanocephalus sp. infection increased, it induced an immune and oxidative stress response in skin mucus, leading to a decrease in overall body condition. The potential health effects that the ectoparasite may have on X. novacula populations will require follow-up studies.